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Full text of "Census of American Business : 1933. Instructions to Census enumerators. Form 4."

CENSUS OF AMERICAN BUSINESS : 1933 



INSTRUCTIONS 
TO CENSUS ENUMERATORS 



FORM 4 



census 

REF 

HF 

3007 

.U55x 

1933i 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

BUREAU OF THE OEN31 






For Reference 

Not to be taken from this room 



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LIBRARY 

OF THE 

Department of Commerce 
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BOOK .pf^— - 






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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

DANIEL C. ROPER, Secretary 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 

WILLIAM LANE AUSTIN, Director 



7 ' 



CENSUS OF AMERICAN BUSINESS : 1933 



INSTRUCTIONS 
TO CENSUS ENUMERATORS 



FORM 4 




BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 
LIBRARY 

UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 



WASHINGTON : 1933 






238 




SPECIAL NOTICE 

EVERY INQUIRY ON CENSUS SCHEDULES MUST 
BE CORRECTLY AND ACCURATELY ANSWERED 
IN A MANNER ACCEPTABLE TO THE OFFICE. 
UNLESS THIS IS SATISFACTORILY DONE NO PAY- 
MENT WILL BE MADE TO THE ENUMERATOR. 



EXTRACT FROM THE CENSUS ACT 

Sec. 14. That all mail matter, of whatever class or weight, relating to the 
census and addressed to the Census Office, or to any official thereof, and indorsed 
"Official business, Census Office", shall be transmitted free of postage, and by- 
registered mail if necessary, and so marked: Provided, That if any person shall 
make use of such indorsement to avoid the payment of postage or registry fee on 
his or her private letter, package, or other matter in the mail, the person so 
offending shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to a fine of $300, to be 
prosecuted in any court of competent jurisdiction. 



ivi* 



INDEX 



Accountants — not to be canvassed, 4. 

Address changed — how to handle, 7. 

Adjustment bureaus, 13. 

Airlines — not to be covered, 4. 

Airports — how to report, 13. 

Amusement parks — how to report, 13. 

Apartment hotels — when to report, 13. 

Apparel group, 9. 

Assembler and country buyer, 15. 

Athletic fields, ball parks, 11. 

Auction company, 15. 

Automobile dealers, 8. 

Automotive group, 8. 
:to repair garages — selling parts, ac- 
cessories, and/or gas and oil, 8. 
ito repair garages selling nothing but 
service, 12. 

lto repair shops of various kinds, 
11-12. 
atomobile wholesalers, 10. 

B 

3 ,keries, 8. 

ill parks, athletic fields, 11. 

inks — not to be covered, 4. 

barbecues, 12. 

Barber shops, 12. 

Baths (Turkish, etc.), 12. 

Beauty shops, 12. 

Billiard parlors, 12. 

Blacksmiths, 12. 

Blueprinters, 12. 

Boarding houses — exempt, 4. 

Bootblacks, 12. 

Bowling alleys, 12. 

Broadcasting stations — how to report, 
13. 

Brokers (stock brokers' offices) — ex- 
empt, 4. 

Brokers (wholesalers), 15. 

Bulk tank station (wholesale gas and 
oil), 15. 

Business colleges — exempt, 4. 

Butchers, 8. 



Cabinetmakers, 12. 

Cafeterias, public — to be covered, 9. 

Cafeterias for employees — exempt, 14. 

Candy stores (or confectionery), 8. 

Cartage business, 12. 

Cash-and-carry wholesalers, 15. 

Cemeteries — exempt, 4. 

Cents — report dollars, not cents, 4. 

Chain — local, 14. 

Sectional or national, 14. 

Chains — report the number of units, 7. 
Can reports be consolidated? 4-5. 
Central office reports {refer in- 
quiries to Washington for special 
instructions) . 

Change of address or ownership since 
1929, 7. 

Chemical wholesalers, 10. 

Circulating libraries, 12. 

Cigar stores, 10. 

Cleaning and pressing shops, 13. 

Clothing stores, 9. 

Clothing wholesalers, 10. 

Clubs — exempt, 14. 

Coal and ice dealers, 10. 

Coal wholesalers, 11. 

Coat and towel supplies, 12. 

Coffee roasters, 11. 

Collection agencies, 12. 

Combination (grocery and meat) stores, 
8. 

Commissions and bonuses (include as 
"pay roll"), 17. 

Commission merchants (wholesale), 15. 

Company store (commissary), 14. 

Concession operators (leased depart- 
ments), 10-13. 

Construction enterprises — not to be 
covered, 4. 

Construction material dealers (whole- 
sale), 11. 

Contractors — not to be covered, 4. 

Cooperative marketing association 
(wholesale), 15. 

m 



IV 



INDEX 



Country general stores, 8. 

Credit bureaus and agencies — how to 

report, 13. 
Credit sales denned — how to report, 18. 
Custom tailors, 9. 



Dance halls, 12. 

Dancing academies (schools) — exempt, 

4. 
Delivery service, 12. 
Dental laboratories, 12. 
Department stores, 8. 
Detective agencies — not to be covered, 

4. 
Dining cars — exempt, 14. 
Direct — selling (house-to-house), 15. 
Disinfectant and exterminator service, 

12. 
Doctors, dentists — exempt, 4. 
Dollars — do not report cents, 4. 
Draftsmen's offices — exempt, 4. 
Dressmakers, 9-12. 
Drop shipper, 15. 
Drug stores, 10. 
Drug wholesalers, 10. 
Dry goods stores, 8. 
Dry goods wholesalers, 11. 
Duplicator service, 12. 

E 

Eating places, 9. 

Educational institutions — exempt, 4. 
Electrical appliance dealers, 9. 
Electrical wholesalers, 11. 
Elevator (grain), 15. 
Embalmers (funeral director), 12. 
Employees' cafeterias — exempt, 14. 
Employment agencies, 12. 
Employment data — how to report, 16. 
Equipment and supply houses (whole- 
sale), 11. 
Exempt — what not to cover, 4. 
Exterminator (disinfecting) service, 12. 
Express and transfer service, 12. 
Expenses (operating) — denned, 17. 
Export agent — export merchant, 15. 



Farmers — not to be covered, 4. 
Farmers' supply stores, 9. 
Farm products wholesalers, 11. 
Feed store, 9. 
Field canvass, 1-4. 



Filling stations, 9. 

Financial institutions — not to be cov- 
ered, 4. 

Flour and feed mills — exempt, 14. 

Food products wholesalers, 11. 

Fountain (soda), 9. 

Frankfurter (refreshment) stands, 12. 

Fur repair shops, 12. 

Full-time employees described, 16. 

Funeral directors, 12. 

Furniture stores, 9. 

Furniture repair shops (upholsterers), 
12. 

Furniture wholesalers, 11. 

G 

Garage (auto repair), 8-12. 
Garages (storage), 12. 
Gasoline filling stations, 9. 
Gasoline wholesale distributor (bulk 

tank station), 15. 
General merchandise stores, 8. 
General merchandise wholesalers, 11. 
General stores (country), 8. 
Golf practice courses, 14. 
Grain elevators (wholesale), 15. 
Greenhouses — not to be covered, 4. 
Grocery stores, 8. 
Grocery wholesalers, 11. 
Growers — not to be covered, 4. 

H 

Hardware store, 9. 
Hardware wholesaler, 11. 
Home furnishings stores, 9. 
Home office — how to report name, 7. 
"Hot-dog" (refreshment) stands, 12. 
Hotels — how to report, 14. 
Household appliance dealers, 9. 
House-to-house selling, 15. 

I 

Ice and coal dealers, 10. 

Import agent — import merchant, 15. 

Independent store (local), 14. 

Industrial users — sales by wholesalers, 
18. 

Installment credit sales — how to re- 
port, 18. 

Insurance offices — not to be covered, 4. 



Jewelry stores, 10. 

Jobber (wholesale), 15. 

Junk assemblers (wholesale), 11. 



INDEX 



Kind of business — how to report, 8. 



Laundries (commercial plants) — ex- 
empt, 4-14. 

Laundry agencies and hand laundries, 
12. 

Lawyers — exempt, 4. 

Leased departments, 10-15. 

Linen supply service, 12. 

Liquor dealer, 9. 

Local chain, 14. 

Local independent, 14. 

Location of establishment — how to 
report, 7. 

Lumber and builders' supplies, 9. 

Lunch counter, 9. 

Lunch room, 9. 

M 

Machinery and supply houses (whole- 
sale), 11. 

Mail-order retail house, 8. 

Manufacturers' agent, etc., 15-16. 

Manufacturers — not to be covered, 4- 
14. 

Manufacturers who are also distribu- 
tors — how to report, 14. 

Marketing association (cooperative, 
wholesale), 15. 

Meat markets, 8. 

Men's stores, 9. 

Mercantile agencies, 12. 

Merchandise cost is not part of ex- 
pense, 17. 

Merchant tailors, 9. 

Milliners, 9. 

Mines and quarries — exempt, 14. 

Motion picture theaters, 12. 

Multi-unit organizations (consoli- 
dated?), 5. 

N 

Name of establishment — what to re- 
port, 7. 
Notary public — exempt, 4. 
Not to be canvassed, 4. 



Operating expenses defined, 17. 
Operating receipts — how to report, 17. 



Parking lots and garages, 12. 

Part-time employees described, 18. 

Payroll defined, 17. 

Peanut roasters, 11. 

Photo finishers, 12. 

Photographers, 12. 

Planing mills — exempt, 14. 

Pool (and billiard) parlors, 12. 

Pressing and cleaning shops and agen- 
cies, 13. 

Printers (if selling at retail only) , 10. 

Printing and publishing offices — ex- 
empt, 14. 

Professional people — exempt, 4. 

Promoters of athletic and other con- 
tests, 12. 

Proprietors defined, 16. 

Public stenographers — exempt, 4. 

Public utilities — exempt except for 
retail stores operated by them, 4. 



Quarries — exempt, 14. 

R 

Radio broadcasting stations, 13. 

Radio dealers, 9. 

Radio repair shops, 12. 

Real estate offices — exempt, 4. 

Receipts (operating) and sales — how to 

report, 17. 
Refrigerator dealers (electric or gas) , 9. 
Refreshment stands, 12. 
Refusal to answer — how to handle, 1-5. 
Rent (include with "other operating 

expenses"), 17. 
Rent of living quarters to be excluded, 

17. 
Reports — daily reports to supervisor, 2. 
Retail sales by wholesalers, 18. 
Retailers' sales to other retailers (for 

re-sale), 18. 
Retail stores — special attention, 8. 
Restaurants, 9-14. 
Riding academies, 12. 



Sales — how to report, 17. 
Sales tax — how to report, 18. 
Sawmills — exempt, 14. 
Schedule — what it contains, 7. 



VI 



INDEX 



Schedules — how to get extra copies, 1. 

Schools — exempt, 4. 

Selling agent (wholesale), 16. 

Service trades or industries to be can- 
vassed, 11-12. 

Shoe repair shops, 12. 

Shoe shine shops, 12. 

Shoe stores, 9. 

Skating rinks, 12. 

Spice grinders, 11. 

Sporting goods dealers, 10. 

Sporting goods at wholesale, 10. 

Stationery stores, 10. 

Steamship dining rooms — exempt, 14. 

Stock brokers' offices — exempt, 4. 

Stocks on hand — how to report, 17. 

Storage warehouses, 12. 

Supply and equipment dealers (whole- 
sale), 11-16. 

T 

Tank station (wholesale gas and oil), 

15. 
Taxes to be included with "all other 

expenses", 17. 
Taxes (sales taxes) — how to report, 18. 
Taxicab operators — not to be covered, 

4. 
Telephone or telegrams — when to use, 

2. 
Theaters, 12. 

Tinsmiths and tinshops, 10. 
Tourist camps — how to report, 14. 
Towel supply service, 12. 



Township — do not report if within city 

limits, 7. 
Toy shops, 10. 

Transfer and express service, 12. 
Transportation companies — not to be 

covered, 4. 
Trucking business, 12. 
Turpentine stills — exempt, 14. 
Type of establishment or operation 

denned, 14. 

U 

Undertakers, 12. 
Upholsterers, 12. 



Vacuum cleaner service, 12. 
Variety stores, 8. 

W 

Wagon distributor — retail, 15. 

Wagon distributor — wholesale, 16. 

Warehouses of chain store systems, 16. 

Warehouses — storage, 12. 

Waste material wholesalers, 11. 

Wholesale breakdown of sales — how to 
report, 18. 

Wholesale establishments — special at- 
tention, 10. 

Wholesale merchant, 16. 

Window cleaning service, 12. 

Women's apparel and accessories stores, 
9. 



CENSUS OF AMERICAN BUSINESS 



THE FIELD CANVASS 

1. The United States has been divided into approximately 300 supervisor's 
districts each of which will be in charge of a supervisor. Each supervisor's 
district is in turn divided into a number of enumerator's districts. Each of 
these districts will be assigned to an enumerator to personally canvass each 
business establishment as outlined in these instructions. 

2. Responsibility of Enumerator to Supervisor. — All of your duties as a 
census enumerator are to be performed under the direction of the supervisor. 

3. Rules and Instructions. — You must read carefully and observe the rules 
and instructions which follow. If questions or difficulties arise which are not 
covered by these instructions, you should see or write immediately to your super- 
visor for further instructions. 

4. Receipt of Supplies. — The supervisor of your district has furnished you 
with the necessary schedules, blank forms, and other supplies for your work. 
You should promptly acknowledge the receipt of these supplies. 

5. Schedule. — A single schedule has been prepared on which to canvass all 
classes of establishments. This schedule is explained in detail in a later part of 
this pamphlet. 

6. Extra Copies of Schedules. — If you need additional copies of the schedule 
or other blank form, notify your supervisor at once, stating the number of copies 
required. 

7. Enumeration District. — The limits of the district (or of each district) 
within which you are to take the census are described in the district outline 
which accompanied your supplies. Outside of your district you have no authority 
and will have no census duties to perform unless otherwise instructed. You 
must carefully canvass every establishment in your district. 

8. Refusals to Answer. — Should any person object to answering any ques- 
tion on the schedule, you should explain that the information is strictly confiden- 
tial, that it will not be communicated to any person whatever, and that no use 
will be made of it which can in any way injuriously affect the interests of individ- 
uals. 

9. Obligation to Secrecy. — You are forbidden to communicate to any per- 
son any information obtained by you in the discharge of your official duties. By 
so doing you will render yourself liable, upon conviction, to a fine not exceeding 
$1,000, or to imprisonment not exceeding 2 years, or to both fine and imprison- 
ment. 

10. Canvassing or Soliciting Not Permitted. — You will not be allowed to 
combine with your work as enumerator any occupation, such as canvassing for 
directory publishers, soliciting subscriptions to newspapers or magazines, or the 
sale or advertisement of any article whatever. 

11. Delegation of Authority Forbidden. — You must not delegate your 
authority to any other person, or employ or permit anyone to do for you any of 
the work of enumerating your district. 

1 



2 CENSUS OP AMERICAN BUSINESS: 193 3 

12. Not to be Accompanied or Assisted by Unauthorized Persons. — 

You must not permit anyone to accompany or assist you in the performance of 
your duties, except duly appointed officers or employees of the Bureau of the 
Census. 

13. The Work Day. — All enumerators are employed under the rules gov- 
erning civil works project, and the supervisors will give instruction as to the 
number of hours to be worked each day. It is expected that the enumerators will 
work each day for the prescribed number of hours in securing the returns required. 
Each enumerator will be expected to secure a sufficient number of reports each 
day to justify his employment, and unless this is done the supervisors will be re- 
quired to dismiss such enumerators as do not produce the required results. 

14. Daily Reports. — Daily report blanks are furnished in sufficient number to 
cover the period of your canvass. A report must be prepared every day and 
mailed or delivered in person to the supervisor in charge of your district. The 
schedules secured each day must accompany your daily report. These daily 
reports will be used by the supervisor as a basis for your compensation. If you do 
not send your reports every day you cannot be paid promptly. 

15. Time Allowed for the Enumeration. — The enumeration must be com- 
pleted by February 1. The supervisor is expected to divide any enumeration 
district which as outlined is found to be too large to complete on the date specified. 
If the enumerator finds his territory is too large to complete as stated, he should 
immediately notify the supervisor. 

16. Expenses. — In fixing the rates of compensation it has been assumed that 
these rates would constitute the enumerator's entire payment for services and for 
incidental expenses, including transportation. With this end in view, the rates 
have been made higher in thinly settled districts and in other areas where the 
enumerator is likely to have to incur transportation expenses to reach the estab- 
lishments. It will not be possible, therefore, to make any allowance to the 
enumerator for expenses or to reimburse him for expenditures which he may make 
for transportation, for telephone calls, for telegraph messages, or for any other 
incidental matters. 

17. Use of Mails. — All mail matter of whatever class or weight, relating to 
the census and addressed to any census official, if endorsed "Official Business, 
Bureau of the Census" is to be transmitted free of postage (see sec. 14 of the 
Census Act), and an order covering this point has recently been issued by the 
Postmaster General, a copy of which is on page II of these instructions. This 
provision is contained in section 869 of the Postal Laws and Regulations. If a 
postmaster refuses to receive such mail matter, when properly endorsed, show 
him your copy of the order of the Postmaster General and ask him to look up sec- 
tion 869 of the Postal Laws and Regulations; in case of further difficulty, report 
the facts to your supervisor. 

18. Use of Telegraph and Telephone. — In communicating with the super- 
visor of your district, the mails will be found sufficient for all ordinary purposes; 
but should any emergency arise in which you need immediate counsel or instruc- 
tion, use the telegraph or telephone. The telegraph companies will accept tele- 
grams signed by you if marked "Official business, charge Bureau of the Census, 
Washington, D.C., at Government rates", without requiring payment in advance. 
In case of emergency you may telephone to your supervisor, provided the tele- 
phone company will collect the charges from the supervisor; any other telephoning 
must be at your own expense. 

19. Where Enumerator Has Telephone. — If you have a telephone in your 
residence, with unlimited service, or have access otherwise to phone service, it 
will be to your advantage to make free use of it for communication with youi 



CENSUS OF AMERICAN BUSINESS: 19 3 3 6 

supervisor. You should by all means make sure that he has your telephone num- 
ber, so that he may be able to deliver any message to you in this way without 
delay. 

20. General Method of Filling Out Schedules. — Take pains to write leg- 
ibly and to keep your schedules neat and clean. Do not hurry; be sure that you 
know the proper entry and where it should be made, before making it, so as to 
avoid erasing and interlining. All inquiries should be carefully answered. Figures 
should be written plainly. Do not leave items blank. Items calling for dollar or 
number figures should always be answered, either by inserting the proper num- 
ber or dollar figures, or by a check ( V mark to indicate the question was asked 
and the answer was "none." 

21. Numbering Reports. — Each report secured by the enumerator should 
be numbered in the box appearing in the upper right-hand corner of the schedule. 
The supervisor's district number and the enumerator district number appears 
on the "District outline" accompanying your supplies. The schedule number 
should be the numerical order in which you secure the reports beginning with 1. 

22. The following is a list of supplies which each enumerator should receive 
from the supervisor. The enumerator should check supplies received immediately 
and if any are missing he should advise the supervisor at once. 

ITEM 

Schedules Outline of enumeration district 

Envelops (Supervisor's district number and 

Daily reports enumerator's district number to be 

Letterheads placed on each schedule) 

Instructions to enumerators Completion card 

23. Oath of Office. — Before beginning work the enumerator must subscribe 
to an "oath of office." The necessary forms will be supplied to you by the 
supervisor. After this is properly filled out it must be returned to the supervisor. 

24. Appointment Certificate. — A certificate of appointment will be given 
you by the supervisor. This should be carried at all times and can be shown to 
anyone who questions your right to ask for census reports. 

25. Application for Appointment. — The supervisor will furnish each 
enumerator with a blank on which to formally make application for appointment 
This is for record purposes in the Washington office. 

26. The enumerator is required to make a thorough and complete canvass of his 
district. A list of the classes of establishments to be included in the census is 
given in this pamphlet. Be careful that you secure a report for every one of 
these establishments in your territory. 

27. Completion of Work. — When you have completed the canvass fill out 
the "completion card" which is enclosed with your supplies and mail it to the 
supervisor. Your final pay check cannot be sent to you until this card is received 



26550°— 33 2 



GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 

1. Scope of the Census. — This is a Nation-wide census, covering the year 
1933. Reports must be obtained for all wholesalers, jobbers, and other wholesale 
distributing agencies ; all retailers, other classes of distributors such as automobile 
dealers and filling stations; auto repair and service establishments; all hotels; 
auto camps, restaurants, beauty parlors, barber shops, and other service types of 
establishments; and theaters, pool parlors, bowling alleys, and other amusement 
places. A list of establishments to be included follows, but any others not 
specifically excepted should be enumerated if there is any question of doubt. 
Study form 2 (the schedule) carefully and be sure that you know the meaning of 
every item on it. 

2. Canvass Based on Establishment. — This census is taken on the basis of 
establishments which are places of business where goods or services are sold or 
distributed. An establishment may be in the form of a store, a distributing ware- 
house, an office or place of business or part thereof if shared with other similar 
organizations. 

3. What is NOT to be Covered. — This census does not cover the following, 
and enumerators are not to obtain reports from: 

(1) Manufacturers, farmers, growers, and other producers of commodities or 

foodstuffs. Commercial laundries, large bakeries, canneries, green- 
houses, etc. 

(2) Construction enterprises, contractors, etc. 

(3) Transportation companies, air lines, taxicab operators, public utilities 

(electric, gas, water, telephone, telegraph, etc.) (stores operated 
by public utilities are to be included). 

(4) Apartment houses, boarding houses, "tourists' homes" in private resi- 

dences, cemeteries. (Tourist camps, however, are to be included.) 

(5) Educational institutions, business colleges, dancing academies, musical 

instructors. (Public dance halls, however, are to be included.) 

(6) Professional services (doctors, dentists, lawyers, etc.). 

(7) Individual services (accountants, detectives, draftsmen, dressmakers, 

notaries public, public stenographers, real-estate offices, individuals 
engaged in service work). 

(8) Financial institutions and agencies (banks, insurance companies, and 

agencies, stock brokers) . 

4. The Field Canvass. — The enumerators will receive special instructions 
from the supervisor as to the time to make the canvass in their respective dis- 
tricts. All reports must be sent by the enumerator to the supervisor in accordance 
with instructions to be furnished by the supervisor. 

Enumerators must make a complete canvass of their districts and are to obtain 
reports for all retailers, wholesale establishments, service businesses, amuse- 
ments and hotels. The establishments to be omitted are those of the classes 
listed in paragraph 3 above. 

In reporting dollars of sales, expenses, etc., avoid cents. Write "none" oppo- 
site any questions which are answered "none" or which do not apply. 

5. Chain Organizations. — In many cases stores, theaters, and other estab- 
lishments are controlled by companies which have offices located in some other 
city. In most of these cases the enumerator will be unable to secure a complete 
report locally, and the manager will tell the enumerator that the report must be 



CENSUS OF AMERICAN BUSINESS: 193 3 5 

obtained at the company's office. The enumerator should prepare a report for 
each establishment of this kind by completely filling out inquiry 1 (Description 
of establishment) , inquiry 2 (Kind of business) , inquiry 3 (Type of establishment 
or operation) , and by writing in the space provided in the schedule the address of 
the office where the report must be secured. Be sure to give the name and 
street address of the office where the report is to be furnished as well as the city 
in which such office is located. (Frequently the office is operated under another 
name from that by which the plant or store is locally known.) Enumerators must 
not omit any business establishment (except those listed in par. 3) . Either a com- 
plete report or a partial report as indicated in this paragraph must be secured. 

6. When Reports Cannot be Secured. — In some cases enumerators will, for 
various reasons, be unable to secure reports. In every instance of this kind, 
inquiries 1, 2, and 3 on form 2 must be filled out, as well as any other information 
available, and a notation must be made on the schedule giving the name and 
address of the company or individual from whom the report is to be obtained, or 
the reason for failure to report completely. 

7. Consolidated Returns. — When more than one local establishment in the 
same line of business is operated by the same company or individual, and the 
information concerning them is available for the group but not separately, a 
consolidated return may be made for all stores in one city, town, or village. Be 
sure to (1) write across the top of form 2, above the heading, the words "Con- 
solidated return for establishments", stating the number of establish- 
ments covered by the one return. (2) Attach a strip or sheet listing the net 
sales of each separate establishment, the total of which must agree with the sales 
shown on consolidated return. DO NOT FAIL TO ATTACH SUCH DETAIL 
STRIP. 

In this connection, realize that ownership alone is not the determining factor, 
for the establishments must be in exactly the same line of business and must be 
operated together, as a branch system or chain. Sometimes the same person 
will own two or more dissimilar businesses, but in that case each must be reported 
separately on form 2. 

No establishments may be consolidated that are located in different places; 
Each consolidated return must apply entirely to the one city, town, or village 
named in inquiry 1 (c) of the schedule (form 2) . Avoid consolidated returns when 
the information can be obtained in separate returns. 

8. Accuracy of Description Essential. — No matter how carefully the bal- 
ance of the schedule is made out, it is worthless unless the kind of business can be 
exactly classified. That can come only from the information supplied by the 
enumerator in blocks 1, 2, and 3. The value of a census depends upon correct 
classification. 

The difficulty in classifying the schedules arises from the fact that descriptive 
terms are loosely applied. For instance, to most people a grocery store is a grocery 
store, whether it sells fresh meats or not. Yet the distinction is important, for 
the two are separately classified. Similarly, a meat market differs from a meat 
market with groceries. A drug store which is an apothecary shop without foun- 
tain differs from a drug store with fountain. A feed store selling groceries differs 
from a feed store selling hardware and farmers' supplies, or one selling only feed, 
flour, grain, etc. 

Be specific in your descriptions, for much depends upon your comments. Not 
only make 2 (a) complete, but state in section (6) the principal classes or lines 
of goods sold, or principal sources of gross revenue (such as admissions, cleaning, 
fur repairs, repairs, or painting) . In a grocery store schedule, for instance, state 
lines of goods which produce the most sales, such as groceries, meats, fresh vege- 



6 CENSUS OF AMERICAN BUSINESS: 193 3 

tables, butter and eggs, delicatessen goods, bakery goods. In a delicatessen, for 
instance, show in the six spaces such items as delicatessen goods, meals at tables, 
fountain, cigar stand and perhaps groceries and fruits if the store is also doing a 
substantial business in such lines of goods. 

In a wholesale establishment, state under (6) the principal lines handled, if the 
wholesaler is a specialist. If he handles a general line of products, state merely 
"general line" of whatever it is, such as, general line of hardware, or general line 
of groceries, or general line of dry goods, etc. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARING REPORTS 

(Applies to The Schedule, Form 2, Business Census) 

9. The Schedule. — A simple schedule has been provided, to cover all classes of 
establishments. Every inquiry on the schedule must be answered. If any item 

is not applicable to a particular establishment, insert a dash ( ) or the word 

"none" in space provided for answer to show definitely that the question was 
considered. Drop the odd cents when reporting amounts in dollars. 

INQUIRY 1.— DESCRIPTION OF ESTABLISHMENT 

10. (a) Name of Establishment. — Since separate reports are to be obtained 
when even different establishments are under the same ownership, local name of 
establishment should be given as well as that of the owner. 

11. (6) Name of Owner or Operator. — Give name of person, partnership, 
corporation, etc., owning or operating the establishment. Name of establishment 
and name of owner or operator of the business are both required, as in many cases 
a store or other distributing agency is known by a local name and also by the name 
of the owner or owners (firm or corporation), and unless both names appear on 
the schedule it may be impossible to eliminate duplications when separate reports 
are received, as frequently occurs, one under the local name and the other under 
the owner's name. In the case of a "Cooperative establishment", state under 
(a) name by which establishment or business is commonly known, and under 
(6) give full legal name or title of the cooperative association which owns it or 
runs it. 

12. (c) Location of Establishment. — Show exact location of establishment 
covered by the report. When the establishment is on the boundary line, or when 
part is located in one civil division (city, village, township, etc.) and part in another, 
full information on this subject must be given under " Remarks." If there are 
other unusual conditions, they should also be explained. "Township" need not 
be reported within the corporate limits of an incorporated city. 

13. (d) Was This Establishment in Operation in 1929? — The purpose of 
this question is to make correct comparisons with 1929. Answer YES if the busi- 
ness was in operation any time in 1929, regardless of whether ownership has 
changed hands in the meantime. It is not necessary that the street address be 
the same as in 1929, provided it was located within the same city in 1929. 

14. (e) Number of Establishments in Same Line of Business Owned by 
this Organization Anywhere in the United States. — If the answer is two or 
three, give under "Remarks" the location of those not covered by this report. 
If a chain, give approximate total number of units to indicate size of chain, and 
give under (J) the home office of the chain. If home office is located in a large 
city, be sure to give street address of the central organization. 

15. (/) Where is the Home Office (give Post-office Address). — Home office 
required only if more than one establishment is owned or operated by the same 
organization. (If name of central organization is different from that given 
under (6), be careful to note here the name, also, of the central or home office 
organization.) 

DO NOT WRITE IN BOX ALONG RIGHT-HAND MARGIN 

7 



8 CENSUS OP AMEKICAN BUSINESS I 193 3 

INQUIRY 2.— KIND OF BUSINESS 

The enumerator must use great care to answer this inquiry accurately and 
definitely. The tabulation by kind of business will be based on this inquiry. 
As an aid in answering this question properly some ideas on designation to be 
used are given for retail, wholesale, and service trades, respectively. Do not 
fail to check the proper function carefully in the proper box along right-hand 
margin opposite (a) (check hotels as "service"). 

RETAIL 
16. Retail Stores. — Include all classes of establishments which sell commodities 
(new or second-hand) of any kind at retail (to ultimate or household consumers) . 
Under this description are many places of business which are not normally re- 
garded as retail stores, such as gasoline filling stations, refreshment stands, milk 
dealers who sell from house to house, and others that sell goods at retail. All 
retail stores must be canvassed, but attention is called below to special cases 
which require extra care in answering Inquiry 2 of the schedule. 

FOOD STORES 

Candy Store. — If with fountain, it is a confectionery store. 

Grocery Store. — If such store sells also fresh meats, say " grocery-and- 
meat" store, or "combination store." 

Meat Market. — If such store also sells groceries say "meat market with 
groceries". 

Butchers and Abattoirs. — Attention is called particularly to establish- 
ments generally referred to as "butchers." Most "butchers" are no 
more than markets for the sale of meats at retail, but frequently the 
operators also do some slaughtering. All operations of butchering estab- 
lishments are to be enumerated as "butchers." Those not butchering 
are to be enumerated as "meat markets", or "meat markets with gro- 
ceries" if they also sell groceries. 

Bakery. — Report only stores selling bakery goods to consumers and small 
bakeries which do not report to the Census of Manufactures. 

Country General Store. — This is a store located in a town of less than 
10,000 population which sells groceries and other kinds of merchandise 
each in substantial proportions (groceries being an important part of the 
business). Indicate whether the combination of goods is largely "gro- 
ceries with apparel and dry goods ", or "groceries with other merchandise. " 
Indicate in 2 (6) the nature of the principal kinds of merchandise. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE GROUP 

Department Store. — Handles dry goods, men's and women's furnishings, 
home wares, floor coverings, etc., on a strictly departmentized basis. 
Always state whether "with food department" or "without food de- 
partment." (Exclude leased departments; see p. 10.) 

General Merchandise Store. — Is located in cities of 10,000 and over and 
handles several distinct lines of merchandise, but is not a department 
store. State whether "with food department" or "without food de- 
partment. " 

Dry Goods Store. — Sells piece goods and women's and children's apparel. 
If it also sells furniture, radios, home ware, or men's clothing, it is a 
department store. 

Variety Stores. — All the 5-and-10 and to-a-dollar stores. Mostly but not 
entirely chain units. Do not confuse with toy shops. 

Mail-order House. — Selling by mail from catalog. Say whether a general 
line of merchandise or some specialty. Report any retail stores separately. 

AUTOMOTIVE GROUP 

Automobile Dealer. — Distinguish between a dealer (selling new cars as 
well as trade-ins) and a used-car dealer (selling used cars only) . If he also 
sells agricultural implements, say so. 

Automobile Repair Shop. — If it sells general repairs or some specialty 
repair business, describe exactly. Must sell parts, accessories and/or gas 
and oil, to be classed as a retailer. If selling only service, report as 
SERVICE. 



CENSUS OF AMERICAN BUSINESS: 1933 9 

Filling Stations. — Include all filling stations selling gasoline for automobile, 
airplane, or other use, whether independent or operated by an oil company. 
Specify (1) gas and oil only, (2) gas, oil, and tires, (3) gas> oil, and eating 
place, or (4) any other combination with gas and oil business. 

APPAREL GROUP 

Clothing Store. — First specify whether men's, women's, or family clothing 
store. If men's, say whether it also sells furnishings (men's clothing and 
furnishings store). If women's, say whether it also sells shoes (women's 
clothing and shoe store.) (Exclude leased departments; see p. 10.) 

Women's Accessory Store. — Specify by line of goods handled (corset 
shop, furrier, hosiery shop, millinery store, etc.). 

Dressmakers. — Include only dressmaking establishments with places of 
business which employ dressmakers. Do not canvass dressmakers 
operating from their homes. 

Custom and Merchant Tailors and Milliners. — Include all tailors and 
milliners who maintain a place of business, but do not attempt to include 
canvassers of manufacturers selling direct to consumers ' ' made-to-order " 
or "ready-made" clothes. 

Shoe Store. — Specify whether men's or women's or family shoe store. 

FURNITURE AND HOUSEHOLD GOODS GROUP 

Furniture Store. — If other lines of merchandise are handled by such a 

store, say so. (Such as furniture and hardware store.) If the proprietor 

also operates as an undertaker, designate that fact. Be sure to specify 

"second-hand" if store is mainly a second-hand store. 
Household Appliance Store. — Specify whether electric, gas, or both. 

Also state kinds of appliances such as refrigerators, stoves and ranges, oi] 

burners, or general line, etc. 
Home Furnishings Store. — Specify whether specializes in floor coverings, 

draperies, china, antiques, awnings and window shades, interior decoration, 

lamps, etc. 
Radio Dealer. — Specify whether radio and electrical shop, radio and musical 

instrument dealer, or just radio store. If only repair shop, classify under 

service. If it is an electrical shop without radios, call it an electrical 

shop, etc. 

EATING PLACES 

Restaurants, Etc. — Say exactly which of the following: (1) Restaurant 
with table service, (2) lunch room (with both table and counter service) 
(3) lunch counter (without table service) , (4) cafeteria (mainly self-service) , 
(6) fountain lunch (fountain serving lunches), (7) liquor dealer, etc. If 
the eating place is operated in an amusement park, airport, department 
store or other merchandise store, as a concession or leased department, 
be sure to say so. 

LUMBER AND BUILDING GROUP 

Lumber Dealer. — Say whether lumber is sold with (1) building materials, 
or (2) hardware. If dealer sells primarily to other dealers for resale, 
report him as a wholesaler; if mainly to builders and home owners, report 
him as a retail dealer. 

OTHER RETAIL STORES 

Hardware Store. — Be careful to distinguish between wholesalers and 
retailers. A wholesaler is one who sells to another dealer, for resale, in 
larger amounts than he sells to home owners and builders at retail. It is 
not a matter of price or quantity, but merely whether the wares are sold 
for use or for resale. Say whether he also sells (1) furniture, or (2) farm 
implements, or (3) feed. 

Farmers' Supply Store. — Distinguish carefully between (1) feed stores 
selling primarily feed, flour, grain, and fertilizers, or (2) feed-and-grocery 
stores, or (3) feed and coal dealers, or (4) fertilizer stores, or (5) seed stores 
selling bulbs and nursery stock, or (6) farmers' general supply stores (not 
feed stores) or other distinct kinds of retailers. 



10 CENSUS OF AMEEICAN BUSINESS: 193 3 

Cigar Store. — Say whether (1) with fountain, or (2) without fountain, or 
(3) cigar stand (in office building, pool room, hotel, etc.). 

Coal and Ice. — Say whether (1) coal only, or (2) coal with ice, or (3) ioe 
only, or (4) coal and feed dealer. 

Drug Store. — Say whether (1) with fountain or (2) without fountain. 

Jewelry Store. — Say whether (1) an installment credit jeweler (who 
offers easy credit terms as an inducement), or (2) a regular jewelry store 
where credit is only incidental to the sale of jewelry. If watch repairing 
is a concession, get a separate report from watchmaker. 

Sporting Goods Dealer. — Say whether (1) a sporting goods specialty store, 
or (2) sporting goods and toys in substantial amounts. (If a toy store pri- 
marily, with only nonprofessional sporting goods, classify as "toy shop.") 

Stationery Store. — Say whether mainly (1) school supplies with candies 
etc., or (2) stationer and printer, or (3) blank books and forms, or (4) 
stationer and engraver, or (5) commercial stationery dealer. 

Tinsmith or Tinshop. — If operating in a store selling supplies, hardware, 
etc., it is to be covered showing receipts from repairs under 6 (5). If 
operating only as a shop manufacturing cornices, gutters, etc., it is classi- 
fied as " construction" and must not be covered. 

LEASED DEPARTMENTS 

Departments or sections in many stores are leased to and operated by 
independent proprietors or leased-department chains. The basis of rent 
is either a flat monthly payment or a percentage of sales. Get a separate 
schedule from each operator, noting in 2 (a) the kind of department and check- 
ing item 50 under " Retailers" in block 3. 

The amount of rent paid by such operators is part of "other operating 
expenses," 5 (6). The same amount, received by the store in which the leased 
department is conducted, must be reported under 6 (/) as "Receipts from 
leased departments." 

Be sure that leased department sales are not included in the sales of the 
store itself, and that leased department pay roll and other expenses are not 
included in store expenses. 

WHOLESALE 

17. Wholesale Establishments. — Include all places of business where goods 
are sold or distributed on a wholesale basis, i.e. not to individual home consumers. 
Not all of these are commonly known as wholesalers. Some of them are agents 
or brokers, others are known as bulk tank stations, etc. Wholesale establish- 
ments specialize in different commodities even more than retail stores. It is 
therefore essential to describe exactly the kind of merchandise such an establish- 
ment deals in. It is usually very easy to recognize a wholesale grocer or a canned 
goods broker, but some kinds of wholesale businesses need special attention in 
order to have them described accurately in inquiry 2. To these attention is 
called below: 

Amusement and Sporting Goods Wholesale Establishment. — Indicate 
whether it handles a general line of such goods or some narrower class of merchan- 
dise such as sporting goods only, or a still narrower line such as amusement 
equipment and supplies, toys and novelties, cameras, or photographic supplies. 

Automobile Wholesale Establishment. — Specify whether general line of 
motor vehicles or only automobiles (distinguish between new and used), or trucks 
and tractors. 

Automotive Equipment Establishment. — Specify whether general line, 
or only accessories, or some automotive parts, or tires and tubes. 

Chemicals. — Specify whether industrial, and also nature of chemical (explo- 
sives, naval stores, etc.). 

Drugs. — Specify whether general line or some special group of either drugs or 
drug sundries, such as patent medicines, sanitary supplies, toilet articles, or toilet 
preparations. 

Clothing Establishment (Wholesale).— Describe exactly what the estab- 
lishment deals in, whether in a general line of clothing, or in clothing and furnish- 
ings, or only in women's clothing, men's furnishings, or in some specific type of 
furnishings like hosiery, or hats and caps. 



CENSUS OF AMEBICAN BUSINESS I 193 3 H 

Coffee Roasting, Peanut Roasting, and Spice Grinding. — Such opera- 
tions are to be included, whether operated as separate establishments or by 
wholesale grocers or chains. Show the amount of the roasting business under 6 
(a) , describing it exactly. (This business has been eliminated from Manufactures 
Census.) 

Dry Goods Establishment (Wholesale). — Specify whether general line of 
dry goods or some specific type of dry goods merchandise such as knit goods, 
notions, certain kinds of piece goods (cottons, linens, rayons, etc.). 

Electrical Establishments. — Distinguish between those dealing in a gen- 
eral line of electrical merchandise and those handling only equipment or appli- 
ances. Indicate kind of equipment (such as batteries), or appliances (such as 
refrigerators) . 

Dealer in Farm Products. — Be specific in naming the kind of farm product 
in each instance (cotton, grain, raw furs, leaf tobacco, etc.). This is to be dis- 
tinguished from farm supplies (other than machinery and equipment) like feed 
and fertilizer. 

Food Products (other than Groceries). — Specify just the extent to which 
the establishment specializes; some concerns only deal in butter, others also sell 
cheese, some handle only fresh fruits or vegetables, others deal in both fresh 
fruits and vegetables. 

Furniture Establishments. — Indicate whether general line, household 
furniture, office furniture, etc. 

General Merchandise House. — Wholesale establishment dealing in several 
distinct lines of merchandise, each selling in substantial proportions. Usual com- 
binations are hardware with dry goods and electrical goods. May also sell 
groceries. 

Grocery Establishments. — Be careful to distinguish between wholesale 
grocery concerns dealing in a general or complete line of groceries, and those 
dealing only in coffee, flour, sugar, or some other limited group of groceries like 
biscuits and crackers or extracts and spices. 

Hardware Establishments (Wholesale). — Specify whether concern deals in 
general line or in some specific type of hardware such as builders' hardware, 
shelf hardware, tools and cutlery, or heavy hardware. 

Waste Material Establishments. — Canvass all dealers, brokers, etc., in iron 
and steel scrap, junk, paper waste, etc. 

Construction and Building Material Establishments. — Specify the kind of 
material dealt in (cement, glass, asbestos products, lumber, mihwork, etc.). 

Machinery, Equipment, and Supply Houses. — First indicate the type of 
merchandise (commercial, construction, farm, manufacturing, mining, drilling, 
professional, service, or transportation) . Then name the specific kind of machin- 
ery or equipment (dry-cleaners' supplies, oil-well machinery or supplies, surgical 
equipment, etc.). 

Coal Establishments. — Specify type of coal (bituminous, anthracite, coke, 
or general line). The same applies to dealers in metals. 

The importance of being specific in indicating the kind of merchandise a wholesale 
establishment handles or deals in cannot be overemphasized. Apply this rule to all 
cases whether specifically mentioned above or not. 

SERVICE (INCLUDING HOTELS) 

18. Every service establishment listed below must be canvassed as well as all 
others not specifically exempted in paragraph 3 of the instructions. 

SERVICE TRADES OR INDUSTRIES TO BE CANVASSED 

Report all establishments serving the public for revenue. Many also sell 
merchandise. If less than one half of total receipts 6 (g) is from the sale of 
merchandise, such establishments are to be classified as Service Establishments. 

Adjustment bureaus (credit). 

Airports (but not air lines). 

Amusement parks (separate schedule also for each concession). 

Athletic fields, ball parks, etc. 

Automobile battery and ignition shop. 

Automobile radiator shops. 

Automobile paint shops. 



12 CENSUS OF AMEEICAN BUSINESS : 193 3 

Automobile tire repairs (only). 

Automobile washing (auto laundries). 

Automobile top and body repair. 

Automobile garage (repairs only). If also selling gas or accessories, report 
as Retailer. 

Barbecues. 

Barber shops. (Include percentage barbers in a shop as employees.) 

Baths (turkish, etc.). 

Beauty shops. (Include percentage operatives in a shop as employees.) 

Billiard and pool parlors. (Report receipts as admissions; cigar stand, etc., 
as merchandise sales.) 

Blacksmiths. 

Blue-printing establishments. 

Bootblacking establishments and stands. (See shoe shine shops.) 

Bowling alleys (report receipts as admissions; cigar stand, etc., as merchan- 
dise sales). 

Broadcasting stations. (See special instructions below.) 

Cabinetmaker shops. 

Cartage business (general, including local moving vans). 

Circulating libraries (except public libraries) . 

Cleaning and pressing shops. 

Coat and towel supply. (See linen supply.) 

Collection agencies (not cooperative credit associations. See adjustment 

bureaus) . 

Credit bureaus (retail). (Consumer credit reporting.) 

Dance halls (but not dancing academies — instruction). 

Delivery service (operated as a business, delivering parcels for stores) . 

Dental laboratories. 

Disinfectant and exterminating service. 

Dressmakers (only when business establishment is operated). 

Duplicating service. 

Employment agencies (except when operated directly by city, State, or 
Federal Government). 

Express and transfer business. 

Funeral directors and embalmers (if also operating a furniture store, include 
under retail classification) . 

Fur repair shops. 

Garages (storage). 

Hotels. 

Laundry agencies and hand laundries (do not cover commercial laundries) . 

Linen supply services (coats, towels, etc.). (Do not cover commercial 
laundries doing the cleaning for such services.) 

Mercantile agencies (business credit reporting). 

Motion picture houses. 

Parking lots. 

Photographers. 

Photo finishers. 

Photostat service. 

Pressing and cleaning shops and agencies. 

Promoters of athletic and other contests (if maintaining place of business). 

Radio broadcasting stations (see broadcasting stations) . 

Radio repair shops (no sales of radios). (If radios are sold, classify as Retail.) 

Refreshment stands. 

Restaurants, lunch rooms, cafeterias, lunch counters. 

Riding academies. 

Shoe repair shops. 

Shoe shine shops. 

Skating rinks. 

Storage warehouses (frequently include cartage) . 

Theaters — motion picture and others (specify which). 

Tourist camps. 

Towel supply (see linen supply). 

Trucking. 

Undertakers (see funeral directors). 

Upholsterers, furniture repairs. 

Vacuum cleaning service. 

Window cleaning. 



CENSUS OF AMERICAN" BUSINESS: 193 8 13 

19. Some of the service establishments require special attention. Comments 
concerning them are made below as an aid to the enumerator. 

Adjustment Bureaus. — Include bureau maintained by credit men or trade 
associations for the collection of past-due accounts. They are nonprofit organiza- 
tions. Collection agencies, however, operate on a profit basis as independent 
enterprises. They are to be covered, under "collection agencies." 

Airports. — There are 500 municipal airports and 656 commercial airports in 
the United States to be covered. Emergency landing fields are not to be in- 
cluded. The municipal ports usually are operated by a manager, but all activ- 
ities are leased to others. Activities conducted by the municipality itself are 
not to be covered, but reports must be obtained from each concession, such as 
a flying or ground school, sightseeing, and charter flying service, maintenance 
and overhaul service (which usually includes sale of gas and oil), gas and oil 
station if separate, restaurant, news stand, checkroom, etc. Airline ticket offices 
are exempt, as are the airlines themselves. 

At commercial airports the same information is required, plus income from 
hangar rental, etc. Frequently all or some of the above activities are performed 
by the operating company itself. 

Amusement Parks. — If park promotes its own contests, or collects its own 
admissions, report the park as a business with its own pay roll and other operating 
expenses. Receipts would be "admissions", 6 (e). If others promote contests 
and merely rent the park for such purposes, report under 6 (/) "percentage of 
gate receipts" or "rental of park." Report separately each concession operator, 
such as soft drink concession, cigar stand, shooting gallery, etc. Cover concessions 
in city parks. (The concessionaires are in business, even if the city is not.) 

Apartment Hotels. — Apartment houses that are entirely residential (not 
available for transient guests) are classed as private residences of the tenants 
and are not to be canvassed. Apartment hotels must be enumerated when all or 
any substantial part of their income is from transient guests, in which event the 
entire house is to be reported as a hotel. Usually the distinguishing feature is 
whether or not written leases are required from tenants. Absence of an office 
and clerk in the lobby usually indicates that it is an apartment house rather than 
a hotel. 

Barber Shops. — Barbers working in a shop on percentage are to be reported as 
employees, adjusting revenue and expenses accordingly. Same in beauty shops. 

Broadcasting Stations. — Cover income from sale of station time, artists' time 
sold, instruction, and other income. Report number of employees of all kinds on 
the station's pay roll. Artists paid by sponsors are not to be included, as they are 
not part of the station's staff. All employees who derive their principal or total 
income from their activities at the station are to be included as employees, regard- 
less of the number of hours worked. If they work more than 3 days in a week, 
they are full-time employees. If they work 3 days or less per week, they are 
part-time employees. 

Cleaning and Pressing Shops. — Include all establishments selling cleaning, 
pressing, or dyeing service to consumers from an established place of business, but 
do not include cleaning and dyeing plants which report to the Census of Manu- 
factures. (Include so-called "tailor shops" which do not make clothing.) 

Credit Bureaus and Agencies. — Include all bureaus maintained by retail or 
mercantile credit or trade associations on a non-profit basis for the purpose of 
collecting and disseminating credit information to members. If a retail so-called 
credit bureau operates for profit as an independent enterprise, call it a credit 
agency. If an organization collects and disseminates credit information primarily 
intended for bankers, wholesalers, and manufacturers, and operates on a profit 
basis, call it a mercantile agency. 



14 CENSUS OP AMERICAN BUSINESS I 19 33 

Golf Practice Courses are classed under "instruction" and are not to be 

canvassed. (Golf courses also are exempt.) 

Hotels and Restaurants. — Hotels and public restaurants are to be canvassed, 
Including Y.M.C.A., Y.M.H.A., Y.W.C.A., and similar places open to the public. 
Do not attempt to cover boarding houses, clubs, or lunch rooms in schools for 
pupils or in factories for employees. Dining cars and dining rooms on boats 
should not be canvassed, nor employees' cafeterias not open to the public. 

Tourist Camps. — Include all income such as cabin or room rental, parking, 
meals, refreshment stand, cigar counter, etc. Number of employees is usually 
very limited. State in 4 (a) the number of proprietors working full time (or sub- 
stantially so) and include therein any adult members of their families (such as 
wives or grown children) who work full time without specified wages (who are 
not on the pay roll) . Do not include in 4 (c) any such people not on the pay roll. 

20. Manufacturing Establishments not Included. — A separate census is 
taken of all manufacturing establishments. Enumerators must not canvass 
manufacturing plants, except when specifically instructed to do so by the super- 
visor. In some cases the enumerator may be in doubt whether an establishment 
is considered to be a manufacturing plant for census purposes. The following 
classes of establishments are engaged in manufacturing and are not to be can- 
vassed on the Business schedule. 

Sawmills Printing and publishing offices 

Planing mills Commercial laundries 

Flour and feed mills Turpentine stills 

Mines and Quarries not Included. — Mines and quarries are not to be 
canvassed. 

21. Establishments Engaged in Both Manufacturing and Distribution. — 

Sometimes a local manufacturer also operates local retail stores for the sale of his 
product and for other products. (Examples: A large bakery with local stores, or 
a commercial laundry which also does business directly with consumers, or a 
factory with a local retail outlet either in the factory or elsewhere.) As a general 
rule, only one report should be made for each establishment; but in certain cases, 
where such establishments are engaged in both manufacturing and distribution, 
both a manufactures report and a distribution re-port will be required. Enumerators 
should secure reports for the retail stores or other distribution activities, but the 
manufactures reports will be secured by mail direct from Washington. 

INQUIRY 3.— TYPE OF ESTABLISHMENT OR OPERATION 

22. In addition to indicating the kind of business based on the merchandise 
sold or the major service rendered by the establishment, it is essential also to 
check the type of organization as determined by the principal function performed. 
Brief definitions of the principal types of operation are given below: 

RETAIL 

Local Independent. — It is not connected with any chain organization. 
Owned and operated as a local enterprise with one, two, or three units. 

Local Chain. — If four or more units are operated under a single management 
and all such stores are in the same community and same business. 

Sectional or National Chain Stores. — When several stores in same business 
but in more than one community are operated by a single central management. 

Company Store Commissary. — A retail store owned by a manufacturing, 
mining, or other company largely for the sale of goods to its employees. 






CENSUS OF AMERICAN BUSINESS: 19 3 3 15 

Direct Selling Establishment. — An organization that sells from house to 
house through canvassers or route distributors. 

Leased Department. — A section of a store managed and merchandised, not 
by the proprietors or operators of the store itself, but by outside operators who 
may be independent or chain. Leased departments are found most frequently 
in department stores but may also be used by other types of stores, including 
food markets in which fresh meats may be sold by leased department. (See 
also p. 10.) 

Wagon Distributor (retail). — Operating wagons or trucks over established 
routes, selling direct. Describe under "Other Types", retail Section. 

WHOLESALE 

For the benefit of enumerators a list of types of wholesale organizations most 
frequently encountered is given below, together with brief definitions. 

Assembler and Country Buyer. — Buys farm products at local producing 
points or in cities of the producing regions for shipment to larger communities. 

Auction Company. — Concerns selling, by the auction method, fruits, vege- 
tables, leaf tobacco, floor coverings, and other products at wholesale. 

Broker. — Wholesale middleman who negotiates transactions between buyer 
and seller representing either or both. Takes no title to the goods and seldom 
handles them. 

Bulk Tank Station. — Wholesale organization distributing gasoline, oil, and 
other petroleum products, may be owned by oil companies to supply their own 
gasoline filling stations, and to sell to independent retailers or to wholesale 
marketers. 

Cash-and-Carry Wholesaler. — Extends no credit and makes no deliveries 
Usually handles limited line of merchandise. 

Commission Merchant. — Handles goods on consignment at wholesale. Be 
sure that consignment business handled on the commission basis for shippers is 
over 50 percent of the total volume of sales of the establishment. It not, should 
be classified as jobber or wholesaler. 

Cooperative Marketing Association. — Local association formed by pro- 
ducers of farm products for the sale of their goods. May also buy some com- 
modities for the use of farm members. 

Drop Shipper or Desk Jobber. — Wholesaler who buys and sells on his own 
account but does not handle the goods. Goods are shipped directly from the 
manufacturer to the desk jobber's customers. 

Elevators. — Usually found at country points for the handling of grains. 
Attempt to distinguish between three kinds of elevators, independent, coopera- 
tive, and line elevators. Ask the official of the establishment which it is. 

Export Merchant. — Wholesaler who buys goods in the United States and 
sells them abroad. He takes title to the goods; that is, he buys and sells them on 
his own account. 

Export Agent. — Does not take title to the goods which he exports for sale 
abroad for clients on a commission or fee basis. 

Importer. — Wholesaler who buys goods abroad and sells them in the United 
States. Takes title to the goods. 

Import Agent. — Does not take title to the goods. He imports from other 
countries for clients. 

Jobber. — Wholesaler who buys and sells goods at wholesale in his own name. 
Same as wholesale merchant below. 

Mail-Order Wholesaler. — Sells principally by mail at wholesale. 

Manufacturers' Agent. — Is in business for himself selling goods for two or- 
more manufacturers on a commission or fee basis. Does not take title to the 
goods. 



16 CENSUS OF AMEKICAET BUSINESS: 19 3 3 

Manufacturers' Sales Branch. — A wholesale sales establishment or sales 
office maintained and operated by a single manufacturer for the sale of his prod, 
ucts to industrial consumers, to retailers, or to wholesalers. 

Selling Agent. — Same as manufacturers' agent except that the selling agent 
handles the total output of the plants of manufacturers whom he serves. 

Supply and Machinery Distributor. — A wholesaler of industrial goods sell- 
ing to industrial consumers such goods as machinery, equipment, and supplies. 

Wagon Distributor. — A wholesaler who combines sales and deliveries. 

Warehouse of Chain Store. — An establishment maintained by a chain or- 
ganization as a distributing station supplying its stores with merchandise. 

Wholesale Merchant. — A regular service wholesaler who performs all whole- 
sale functions. 

In addition to the above types of wholesale organizations to be canvassed 
include factors who deal in merchandise; cotton gins and compresses; film ex- 
changes (producers' and independent) distributing motion picture films to thea- 
ters; converters; resident buyers; milk and cream stations; and all others who sell 
or deal in merchandise and commodities on a wholesale basis. 

INQUIRY 4.— EMPLOYMENT DATA 

23. This inquiry calls for information for part-time employees as well as full- 
time employees on account of the large number of part-time employees in distrib- 
uting and service establishments. It is important that these inquiries be reported 
carefully. Persons employed for part days or only a few days per week are to be 
considered as part-time employees for the purpose of this inquiry. Full-time 
employees are those normally employed the whole or greater part of the normal 
workweek, whatever it may be. Persons employed only part of the year but 
on a full-time or weekly basis should be reported as full-time employees. 

It is important that such data be obtained for each month in the year with 
the average for the entire period covered by the report; also that you separate 
the number of employees as of the. last pay-roll date into males and females, as 
provided in 4 (b). 

Under (a) include all proprietors and firm members (including adult members 
of their families actively employed in the business), who devote the major part 
of their time to the business, whether or not they receive any stated drawing 
account or other compensation. Under (c) exclude all such proprietors and firm 
members of partnerships and sole ownerships. "Proprietors" may include wives 
and grown children who work at least one half of the business day, regularly. 

Exception. — In a large business that happens to be a partnership rather than 
a corporation, if one or more partners constitute the active management on fixed 
salary (which salary is included in the total pay-roll figures) and such salary is in 
addition to their partnership participation in profits, such salaried partners (of 
large businesses only) may be reported as if they were salaried executives of a 
corporation. That means that they are not included under 4 (a), are included 
under 4 (6) and 4 (c), and their salaries (only) are included under 5 (a). This 
exception applies only in special cases, and only when the stated salary is inde- 
pendent of partnership profits, corresponding to the salary paid to corporation 
executives. When applying this exception be sure to note at top of block 4 or 
below 4 (6) (form 2) the words "Includes salary of — partner-managers." 

Section 4 (c) is one of the most valuable features of this report. Fill it out 
carefully by months. Do not attempt to compute the "Average" line. 



CENSUS OF AMEKICAN BUSINESS: 19 3 3 17 

INQUIRY 5.— OPERATING EXPENSES 

24. This inquiry must show separately the aggregate pa# roll for the year 1933 
or the period covered by the report, exclusive of any compensation to proprietors 
and firm members, but it must include salaries of executives employed by corpo- 
rations as well as all other employees, salesmen, clerks, etc. A special space is 
provided for all other operating expenses other than salaries and wages. In 
these other operating expenses are included rent, interest, traveling expenses of 
salesmen, advertising, taxes, insurance, light, heat, power and all other overhead 
costs. When salaries and wages are added to the "all other operating expenses" 
you obtain total operating expenses to be entered under 5 (c). 

Commissions and bonuses paid to employees are to be included as a part of 
pay roll. 

To facilitate obtaining all the "other operating expense" figures you may 
ask what is the total operating expenses, exclusive of the cost of merchandise. 
From that figure deduct total salaries and wages as reported under 5 (a). The 
difference should be the amount to be inserted under 5 (o). Be sure, however, 
when part-time employees are used by the establishment, to find out how much 
of the total pay roll was paid during the year to such part-time employees, and 
report that figure under 5 (d). The difference between (a) and (d) will be con- 
sidered the amount of pay roll paid to full-time employees. 

When the store and living quarters are combined, the enumerator should make 
a reasonable allocation of rent, or taxes and interest, and other expenses. Only 
the proportion applicable to the business should be reported. 

INQUIRY 6.— NET SALES OR TOTAL OPERATING RECEIPTS 

25. This inquiry is designed to cover receipts for all kinds of establishments 
and from all sources. It embraces the total receipts of the establishment after 
considering returned sales. The five-lettered divisions 6 (a to e) are to be reported 
separately. If they do not cover unusual cases, report in 6 (J) in detail. 

If actual book figures are not available, enumerators should secure the best 
possible estimates from the proprietor or a responsible official of the establishment. 
All these receipts must then be reported under inquiry 6. It is also important 
that in the case of brokers and agents operating at wholesale the selling value of 
the goods shall be reported and not the commissions received by them. If a broker, 
manufacturer's agent, or selling agent should have no actual figures on the value 
of the goods sold by or through him, enumerators should have them prepare esti- 
mates based on the average commission received on the goods handled or sold 
during the year. Under no circumstances are mere commission or fees to be 
reported by brokers and wholesale agents under inquiry 6. 

It is suggested that the enumerator handle this entire inquiry block 6 as a unit, 
by filling in first the total business receipts 6 (g). Then ask for the amount of 
sales 6 (a), the receipts from services 6 (6), receipts from sale of meals and foun- 
tain 6 (d), and any other receipts. In the case of hotels, 6 (c) and 6 (d) can be 
reported separately if on the European plan but necessarily must be combined 
when the hotel is on the American or a mixed plan. Bracket the two lines 6 (c) 
-and 6 (d) when reporting both in one figure. Drinks served with meals should be 
reported under 6 (d) — meals. Sales for consumption outside should be reported 
under 6 (a). 

Whenever 6 (/) is used, be sure to describe the source of income in detail. 
Always fill in the total figure 6 (g), even if only one line above is used. 

26. Practically every establishment will have a recent inventory of mer- 
chandise on hand as of December 31 or nearest inventory date. Obtain that 
figure in dollars at cost or replacement value. Do not report stocks on hand at 
retail values or selling prices. In hotels, restaurants, and most service businesses 
there will be no stocks, except supplies for use. They are not goods on hand for 
sale and so are not to be reported, but if they are also selling some merchandise 
the stock thereof is to be reported. 



18 CENSUS OF AMERICAN BUSINESS: 193 3 

INQUIRY 8.— SUPPLEMENTAL FACTS 

27. Credit Sales. — Each establishment must report that part of its total 
business (as shown under 6 (g)) which is done on a credit basis. Credit sales 
include all sales made on any basis other than strictly cash; that is, there must be 
included all sales made on weekly terms, on a 10-day basis, 30-day basis, end-of- 
month terms, sales on the installment plan, or on any other basis that does not 
involve immediate payment of cash upon receipt of goods. C.O.D. sales, and 
sales on relief orders, are to be classed as cash sales. 

28. Sales Tax. — Some States and other taxing authorities impose a tax on sales. 
It is important that in answer to Inquiry 8 (6) the amount of such taxes paid or 
payable by the establishment on sales made during the year 1933 be reported. 

Federal taxes, such as admissions and excise taxes, are not to be reported. In 
some cases a sales tax is payable only on certain commodities, in some cases only 
on retail sales, while in others, on all kinds of sales of goods and sometimes even 
services. Sometimes the tax is collected in the form of stamps attached to goods 
or to the sales check. Merely obtain the amount in dollars paid or payable as a 
sales tax. A sales tax is not to be confused with licenses or property taxes, and 
applies only in those States and cities which impose a sales tax. 

Report sales tax only when the establishment pays such tax directly to the 
State, city, or other taxing agency. If a tax has been added to the invoice or 
purchase price before the goods reach the establishment (such as the cotton 
processing tax, or stamps attached to incoming goods, or the gasoline tax paid by 
the wholesale distributor) , and the establishment itself does not transmit the tax 
directly to the collector of taxes, such amounts are not to be reported (for they 
will be picked up elsewhere). 

Be sure that the amount reported as sales tax, 8 (6), is also included in sales or 
operating receipts, block 6. In some places it is the custom to include the tax in 
the selling price. In other places it is collected from the customer as an additional 
item and is not recorded as sales. In the latter case, add sales tax to sales in 
reporting 6 (a). 

29. Wholesalers. — Wholesale organizations must report to whom they sold 
the goods reported under inquiry 6 (g) . They must show how much of the total 
goods sold by the establishment was to retailers for resale to ultimate consumers. 
Some wholesale organizations also sell to ultimate consumers on a retail basis, 
although their principal business is conducted on a wholesale basis. It is im- 
portant to indicate under inquiry 8 (c) — (2) how much was sold to consumers 
at retail. Also report the amount of sales made to industrial users, among whom 
may be listed manufacturers, mining companies, oil-well companies, public 
utilities, railroads, restaurants, hotels, and other large industrial users who do not 
resell the goods in the same form. The three classifications may not necessarily 
equal 100 percent of sales, since wholesalers, brokers, and others selling partly or 
entirely to wholesalers would not report that part of their business under either 
of the three classifications in inquiry 8 (c) but would report the full amount under 
inquiry 6. 

30. Retailers. — Every retailer should report under 8 (d) how much he sold at 
wholesale to other retailers for resale. Since an establishment is regarded as a 
retail establishment if over 50 percent of its business is done on the retail basis, 
it is important that the information be supplied on how much of the retailer's 
business was done on a wholesale basis, which means how much he sold to other 
retailers for resale. All such sales are to be included also under inquiry 6 (a) . 

CERTIFICATION 

Every schedule must be certified as to correctness and completeness of the 
data, by the proprietor of a business or by a responsible official thereof. The 
Bchedule must also be signed by the enumerator and properly dated. 

o 



Census of American Business 
1933 Instructions to Census 
Enumerators 



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